Constructed on the orders of the sixth-century Byzantine emperor Justinian, the Hagia Sophia stands as the greatest surviving example of Byzantine architecture today. The magnificent structure, once the world’s largest cathedral, symbolises Istanbul’s composite history as the capital city of three great empires. The Hagia Sophia was built as a cathedral by the Byzantines, converted into a mosque by the Ottomans, then converted into a museum by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, and finally reconverted into a mosque in 2020.
The Hagia Sophia Museum was initially in a dilapidated condition due to fatigue and its location on a fault line that made it prone to several earthquakes over the centuries. Mustafa Kemal Ataturk’s first action plan was to remove the bright red carpets from the floor of the Hagia Sophia and reveal the Justinian-era mortar layer underneath. The floor, which created the illusion of flowing water, was further adorned with marble embellishments like omphalos. The whitewash and plaster covering the Byzantine mosaics were also peeled off.
Due to the continuous deterioration of the Hagia Sophia Museum’s roof, floor, and walls, it was listed on World Monuments Watch in 1996 and on World Monuments Fund in 1998. The first stage included stabilisation and reconstruction of the cracked roof, while the second stage included the preservation of the dome’s interiors and mosaics.
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The Hagia Sophia Museum remained in existence for more than eight decades. As the most legendary structure lining the Istanbul skyline, it became one of the world’s most visited attractions. It was in the 2010s, however, that local Turkish citizens, organisations, and even the various ruling governments began to demand the Hagia Sophia be reconverted back into a fully-functional mosque. In 2016, prayers were officially offered for the first time in the Hagia Sophia Museum. The demands grew, and in 2020, the Hagia Sophia was officially reconverted back into a mosque after almost a century of being a museum. Visitors are still allowed to visit the Hagia Sophia irrespective of their religious backgrounds.
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The Hagia Sophia Museum was reconverted back into a fully-functional mosque in 2020 as per the demands of Turkish citizens. Visitors are still allowed to visit the Hagia Sophia for non-religious purposes.
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Hagia Sophia Museum was a part of the Hagia Sophia, which is located at Sultan Ahmet, Ayasofya Meydani No. 1, 34122 Fatih/Istanbul, Turkey.
Hagia Sophia was a hub of religious, artistic, and political life under two great empires, the Byzantines and the Ottomans. As the central feature of both empires, Hagia Sophia was greatly influenced by the developments and changes that occurred throughout their long histories.
Hagia Sophia is coveted by historians, art historians, architects and scholars alike for its significant position in the art and cultural history of the last 1,500 years. It also holds religious and spiritual importance to the followers of the two religions that had Hagia Sophia as their crucial symbol for centuries.
The Hagia Sophia was constructed on the orders of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian the Great. The previous church at the location, constructed by Emperor Theodosius II, had been burnt down in riots. Emperor Justinian wished to construct a magnificent church to replace the destroyed old church.
It was in 1934 that the founder and first President of modern Turkey, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, declared the Hagia Sophia a museum. Religious practices at the Hagia Sophia were stopped, it was opened to people from all religious backgrounds, and efforts were made to revive ancient Byzantine art and architectural elements that were lost, damaged, or covered up over the centuries.
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Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, who was the founder and first President of modern Turkey, had decided to convert the Hagia Sophia into a museum to help archaeologists and art historians discover the Byzantine architectural and artistic elements that had been lost, damaged, or covered up with plaster over the centuries.
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